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Oral History: Janet Braun-Reinitz

Mural artist Janet Braun-Reinitz participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. She speaks about her involvement in the New York CORE chapter and her decision to become a Freedom Rider. Her Freedom Ride began in St. Louis, Missouri, and continued through Little Rock, Arkansas; Pine Bluff, Arkansas; Texarkana, Texas; Beaumont, Texas; Shreveport, Louisiana; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; […]

Oral History: Joan Trumpower Mulholland

Joan Trumpower Mulholland participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. She describes the conditions at the prison in comparison to the jail. The video was filmed for the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link). Interview Data Name of Interviewee: Joan Mulholland             Name of Interviewer: April Date: November 10, 2001 Place of Interview: Jackson, MS  Time                         […]

Oral History: John Lewis

United States Representative John Lewis participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He speaks about the importance of nonviolence and public image for civil rights demonstrations. In the second clip, Lewis describes the violence in Montgomery. The video excerpts come from the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link). His oral history may also be viewed here.

Oral History: Helen Singleton

Helen Singleton participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. She explains that Freedom Riders received education about nonviolence and describes one of her experiences on the bus. The video excerpts come from the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link).   Interview Data:  Name of Interviewee: Helen Singleton Date: November 8, 2001 Place of Interview: Jackson, MS […]

Oral History: Robert Singleton

Robert Singleton participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He describes being arrested in Jackson and the conditions in the city jail. The oral history was filmed for the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link). Interview Data Name of Interviewee: Dr. Robert Singleton Date: November 8, 2001 Place of Interview: Jackson, MS Time                         Topics/Names/Events Discussed 0:00-2:00 […]

Oral History: Sandra Nixon

Sandra Nixon participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. This video was filmed for the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link). Interview Data Name of Interviewee: Sandra Nixon             Date: November, 2001 Place of Interview: Jackson, MS Time                         Topics/Names/Events Discussed 0:00-2:00 Desire Housing Project, New Orleans; Isaac Thomas; child protection services, New Orleans 2:00-4:00 Fergus & […]

Oral History: John Moody

John Moody participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He first describes the mob violence in Birmingham. Moody then speaks about the incarceration conditions in Mississippi. You can learn more about the Freedom Rides in the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link).   His oral history may also be viewed here.

Freedom Rides

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. The purpose of the rides was “to test the Supreme Court’s ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate […]

Oral History: Thomas Madison Armstrong III

Thomas Armstrong participated in the Freedom Rides in 1961. He says that one of Ross Barnett’s speeches encouraged him to participate in the Freedom Rides, because Barnett said that Mississippian’s were happy with the present conditions. The video was filmed for the documentary The Children Shall Lead (link).   Interview Data Name of Interviewee: Thomas Madison […]