Neshoba

PEOPLE

T.J. Miller

T.J. Miller was one of the ten people gathered at Mt. Zion Baptist Church for a finance meeting on June 16, 1964. After the meeting was dismissed, he followed the Steele family in his car. He was also stopped by the Klansmen and not permitted to depart until the Klansmen were assured there were no white people at the meeting. He later became a member of the Mars Hill Church of God in Christ where his wife Pearl is a member. He is buried in Mars Hill Cemetery in the Poplar Springs community off Highway 16 East and County Road 737.

Sources:

Neshoba County: African-American Heritage Driving Tour of Philadelphia Mississippi.http://www.neshobajustice.com/documents/RootsofStruggle.pdf


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PLACES

The Busy Bee Cafe

The Busy Bee Cafe and Barber Shop, located at 414 Church Avenue and owned by Mr. & Mrs. Millard Kirkland, were the first black-owned businesses in Philadelphia. Mr. Kirkland operated the barbershop while Mrs. Kirkland served soul food to black workers in the area. They were also known for the introduction of soul music to downtown. Marty Stuart, the Nashville music star and former resident of Philadelphia, frequently visited the cafe to join the musicians.

Sources:

Neshoba County: African-American Heritage Driving Tour of Philadelphia Mississippi.

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EVENTS

The Murder of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner

On June 21, 1964, three young civil rights workers were murdered in Neshoba County. The trio had come here to investigate the burning of the Mt. Zion United Methodist Church in the Longdale Community off Highway 16 East. The night the church was burned, parishioners were beaten, some severely. The murders of Michael Schwerner, 24, James Chaney, 21, and Andrew Goodman, 20, were part of a plot hatched by the Lauderdale County unit of the Ku Klux Klan and carried out with members of the Neshoba County unit.

The civil rights workers were part of a broader national movement that hoped to begin a voter registration drive in the area, part of the Mississippi Summer Project that became known as Freedom Summer. A coalition of civil rights organizations known as COFO (Council of Federated Organizations) conceived of a project in the state with massive numbers of student volunteers who would converge on the state to register black voters and to conduct “freedom schools,”which would offer curriculum of black history and arts to children throughout the state.

Chaney, a plasterer, had grown up in Meridian in nearby Lauderdale County, and even as a young student had been interested in civil rights work. Schwerner, a Jewish New Yorker, came south to Meridian to set up the COFO office because he believed he could help prevent the spread of hate that had resulted in the Holocaust, an event that had taken the lives of his family members. Chaney volunteered at the Meridian office, and the two young men began to make visits to Neshoba County searching for residents to sponsor voter registration drives and freedom schools. After contacting members of Mt. Zion United Methodist Church and Mt. Nebo Missionary Baptist Church, as well as other individuals, Chaney and Schwerner made plans for a COFO project in the area.

Tensions were mounting that summer as some of Mississippi’s segregationist newspapers propagated the idea of a “pending invasion”of civil rights workers. The state was a powder keg, as the recently-reformed Ku Klux Klan increasingly made its presence known, and fears were heightened among both blacks and whites. In April 1964, the Klan burned about a dozen crosses in Neshoba County. The Neshoba Democrat condemned the cross burnings and the coercion and intimidation employed by the Klan. The Ku Klux Klan and other groups had become more active in response to increasing civil rights activity, especially since the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision outlawing school segregation.

In addition to the Klan’s resistance, the state of Mississippi itself was continuing to monitor activists through the Sovereignty Commission, which worked in conjunction with the White Citizens Council, to use economic intimidation and threats to attempt to keep blacks in subservient positions. Undertaking such struggles for equality was dangerous and courageous work. The work was so bold that the Klan vowed to stop it, even putting Schwerner on a hit list and giving him a code name “Goatee.”

In mid-June, Chaney and Schwerner traveled to Oxford, Ohio, to participate in the Freedom Summer volunteers training session being held there. While they were away, on June 16, Klansmen looking for Chaney and Schwerner assaulted members of Mt. Zion. Later in the evening, they burned the church to the ground. Having been alerted of the attack, Chaney and Schwerner, joined by new volunteer Goodman, immediately drove south to investigate and offer solace to the church members. On Sunday afternoon, June 21, Father’s Day, the three young men drove to Philadelphia from Meridian and visited members of Mt. Zion. After leaving Mt. Zion Church, they were pulled over by a sheriff’s deputy while in the city limits of Philadelphia. Chaney was arrested and charged with speeding, and Schwerner and Goodman were held on suspicion of burning Mt. Zion United Methodist Church.

What transpired afterwards would change the county, the state, and the nation itself. About 10:30 p.m., the three workers were released and ordered to leave town immediately. On the road to Meridian, they were pursued and overtaken by a gang of white men that included law enforcement officials. When the gang stopped them, the three men were pulled from their vehicle and driven to a lonely gravel road off the highway where they were murdered. By the next day, news of their disappearance was known even in the White House. While many white Mississippians denounced the disappearance as a hoax to get attention for Freedom Summer, President Johnson sent in national guardsmen and sailors from the nearby Meridian navy base to scour the county in search of the three workers.

On June 23, the station wagon the young men had been driving was found burned. By then, if it hadn’t seemed clear before, it was now obvious that the three young men had encountered foul play. Back in Oxford, Ohio, the young COFO volunteers had been informed that three of their colleagues were missing and presumed dead. They had to choose whether or not to continue the project, knowing their safety, even their lives, were at risk. As had been the tradition of many in the civil rights movement, however, the brave young people understood that to give in to violence would end the movement. As the search for their fellow volunteers continued, a thousand young people poured into the state, conducting voter registration drives and setting up freedom schools.

On August 4, forty-four days after their disappearance, the bodies of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner were found buried in a newly-constructed earthen dam on a privately owned farm about seven miles south of Philadelphia. By the end of the summer, despite assaults and the burnings of dozens of other churches in the state, the Summer Project had created an impact. Volunteers registered more black voters and initiated a challenge to the all-white Democratic Party that forever changed the national political landscape. Within two years, 100,000 new black voters registered in the state and began running for elective office.

In early 2004, Mississippi Attorney General Jim Hood reopened the investigation and in early 2005, brought murder charges against Edgar Ray Killen.Forty-one years to the day a Klan mob ambushed and killed the civil rights workers, Edgar Ray Killen was sentenced to sixty years in prison for the manslaughter of all three workers in Philadelphia, the county seat of Neshoba County.

The Call for Justice issued by the Philadelphia Coalition for these murders to be addressed and footage of Edgar Ray Killen being escorted into the courthouse:

The Call for Justice can also be viewed here.

Other videos referencing the murder of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner:

These videos can also be viewed here.

Sources:

Neshoba County: African-American Heritage Driving Tour of Philadelphia Mississippi. http://www.neshobajustice.com/documents/RootsofStruggle.pdf

http://www.neshoba.org/downloads.html

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GROUPS

The Philadelphia Coalition

The Philadelphia Coalition is a multiracial group of concerned local citizens that was formed around a call for justice in the case of the three civil rights workers–James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael “Mickey” Schwerner–who were murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi, in 1964.

In 1994, members of the Philadelphia Coalition held a press conference to present a Call for Justice in Neshoba County. These are clips from the press conference as well as clips of Edgar Ray Killen being escorted to and from the courthouse for the trial:

These videos can also be viewed here.

After the Call for Justice for Edgar Ray Killen, members of the coalition and concerned citizens voice their opinions, feelings, and appreciation for the Philadelphia Coalition and the change it has brought to Neshoba County:

These videos can also be viewed here.

In 2005, the Philadelphia Coalition was honored by the William Winter Institute for Racial Reconciliation with the C.C. Bryant award for community organizing.

The full lecture and awards presentation can be found here.

Source:

“The Philadelphia Coalition. Recognition, Resolution, Redemption: Uniting for Justice.” www.neshobajustice.com.

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DOCUMENTS

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